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  >>>XYLITOL
Xylitol

Xylitol is a kind of bulk sweetener that is good tasting, reduced in calories and dentally safe. Over 35 countries of proving confirm that its sweetness and bulk make xylitol an increasingly popular ingredient in foods, pharmaceuticals and oral health products.

Xylitol liquid was discovered in one of tombs of Chinese T'ang Dynasty, thousand years ago, Chinese people get sweeteners from several ways, one of them is by natural ferment from plants. Xylitol is a white odorless crystalline substance that tastes pleasant and sweet. Because xylitol is an effective preventive agent against dental caries, it is gaining increasing acceptance as a sugar substitute in modern society.

Xylitol is present in many fruits and vegetables and is even produced naturally in our body during normal metabolism. Produced commercially from corn core or some hard wood trees and fibrous vegetation, xylitol has the same sweetness and bulk as sucrose with one-third fewer calories and no unpleasant aftertaste. It quickly dissolves and produces a cooling sensation in the mouth.

Xylitol has been approved in more than 35 countries to be used in foods, pharmaceuticals and oral health products. Xylitol is used in foods such as chewing gum, gumdrops and hard candy, and in pharmaceuticals and oral health products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, children's chewable multivitamins, toothpastes and mouthwashes. The united States approved xylitol officially as a direct food additive for use in foods for special dietary purposes.
Benefits of Xylitol
  

Xylitol:

Good Taste with No Unpleasant Aftertaste

Helps Reduce the Development of Dental Caries

Reduces Plaque Formation

Increases Salivary Flow to Aid in the Repair of Damaged Tooth Enamel

Provides One-Third Fewer Calories than Sugar – about 2.4 Calories per Gram

May Be Useful as an Alternative to Sugar for People with Diabetes on the Advice of their Health Care Providers



Reduces New Caries Formation

The clinical and field tests have shown that the consumption of xylitol between meals reduces the formation of new caries, even when participants were already practicing good oral hygiene. Results clearly show that use of xylitol sweetened foods play a role in helping against tooth decay.It also has an effect in preventing the growth of S.mutans, the primary bacterium associated with dental caries.The American Dental Association has already recognized the usefulness of polyols, including xylitol, as substitutes to sugars and as part of a comprehensive program including proper dental hygiene. The FDA has officially agreed sugar-free foods including xylitol or other polyols to be labeled “does nor promote tooth decay”.

The Ylivieska Health Care Center in Finland have got a conclusion in a two-year study: children aged 11-12 who consumed 7 to 10g of xylitol daily in chewing gum showed a 30 to 60% reduction in new dental caries development compared to the control group not chewing gum.

The follow-up to the Ylivieska study has explored the possible long-term caries-preventing effects of xylitol.A continued reduction in caries increment has been apparent since re-examination of the subjects 2 or 3 years after discontinuation of the use of xylitol in the post-use years of about 55%. The first year of the use of xylitol chewing gum in teeth erupting has over 70% long-term caries preventive effect. The results suggest that the value of xylitol may be highest during periods of high dental activity such as eruption of new teeth.

A 40-month (1989-93) cohort study on the relationship between the use of chewing gum and dental caries was performed with 4th grade students in Belize, Central America. Nine treatment groups were included: control group (no gum); four xylitol groups (range of xylitol consumption 4.3-9.0g/day); two xylitol/sorbitol groups (total polyol consumption 8.0/9.7g/day); one sorbitol group (9.0g/day); and one sucrose group (9.0g/day).Compared with the no-gum group, sucrose gum usage resulted in a marginal increase in caries rate (relative risk 1.20). Sorbitol gum reduced the caries rate (relative risk 0.74). The four xylitol gums were most effective in reducing caries rates (relative risks from 0.48-0.27).The 100% xylitol pellet gum had the greatest effect (relative risk 0.27). The xylitol/sorbitol gums had fewer effects than xylitol, but significant caries rates reduction compared to the no-gum or sorbitol gum groups.The results suggest that systemic usage of polyol-based chewing gum reduces caries rates in young subjects, with xylitol gums being most effective

A three-year clinical dentifrice caries study was conducted with 2,630 children initially aged 8-10 years in the San Jose, Costa Rica metropolitan area. The study evaluated the efficacy of a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica/10% xylitol dentifrice when compared to a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica dentifrice which contained no xylitol.After the three-year period, subjects using the xylitol-containing dentifrice had a statistically significant reduction in decayed and filled dental surfaces (12.3% reduction; P<0.001). The study supports earlier work which suggests that xylitol and fluoride act synergistically to increase the efficacy of oral hygiene products.
Reduces Plaque Growth

The effect of xylitol or xylitol/sorbitol blends in chewing gum and mints on plaque has recently been tested at the Dental Schools of Michigan and Indiana Universities. A significant decrease was showed in plaque accumulation.

Stimulates Salivary Flow

An increase in salivary flow was created by the sweetness and pleasant cooling effect of xylitol-sweetened products (such as mints and chewing gum). Saliva has the effect of cleaning and protecting teeth from decay.

Use in the Diets of People With Diabetes

The three major goals of diabetes management today include control of blood glucose, lipids and weight. Xylitol can be slowly absorbed. So using xylitol, the rise in blood glucose and insulin response associated with the ingestion of glucose is significantly reduced. The reduced caloric value (2.4 calories per gram versus 4.0 for sugar) of xylitol is consistent with the objective of weight control. 

Safety

In 1986, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) to complete a report based on all relevant data concerning xylitol and other polyols. The report significantly concludes the safety of using xylitol in humans. Xylitol's acceptability as an approved food additive for use in foods for special dietary uses was also affirmed.

In 1996, adverse findings in animal studies conducted in the 1970s are "not relevant to the toxicological evaluation of these substances (e.g., xylitol) in humans" was confirmed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), a prestigious scientific advisory body to the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. JECFA has allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of "not specified" for xylitol. ADI, expressed in terms of body weight, is the amount of a food additive which can be taken daily in the diet over a life time without risk. An ADI of "not specified" is the safest category in which JECFA can place a food additive. Xylitol was determined acceptable for dietary uses by the Scientific Committee for Food of the European Union (EU).
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